Cosmic Geography
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On page 174 of Walton’s text, the author lays out a list of passages that have to do with Cosmic Geography.

Job 22:14 – Circle [Vault] of Heaven

Eze. 1:22 – Expanse of Crystal

Exodus 24:10 – Sapphire Pavement

Job 38:19, 22 – Abode of Light

Psalm 8:3 – Heavens as the work of God’s hands.

Psalm 104:3 – Beams of upper-room laid upon the water1

Proverbs 3:19-20 – Skies dripping with dew

Psalm 24:2 – Earth founded upon the seas

Deut. 32:22 – Sheol and the foundation of the mountains

Job 9:6-7 – Pillars of the Earth, sealed and engraved

Job 26:7, 10 – Horizon as a boundary.

Job 38:4-6, 10 – Earth’s foundation, cornerstone, as well as the doors/bars of the sea.

Prov. 8:27 – The horizon of the sea.

Isa. 40:22 – Circle of the earth

Job 36:27 – The water cycle, raindrops from heaven.

Psalm 104:9 – Boundaries for the waters.

Micah 4:1-2, Judges 9:37 – Mountain at the center (Jerusalem, Gerazim)

Half of these are clearly metaphorical, and others may represent old-world geography. Either way, they do not detract from the truthfulness of the biblical text; rather, they only enhance it.


  1. Probably the ‘waters of the sky’, the blue above, not blue below.
News Reporter
From Madison, Wisconsin. B.A. Biblical Studies: Moody Bible Institute, Chicago. M.Div. Student at Tyndale Seminary in Toronto, Ontario.

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